Notification report

General information

Notification Number

Member State to which the notification was sent

Date of acknowledgement from the Member State Competent Authority

Title of the Project
Crambe with increased levels of industrial quality oils

Proposed period of release:
01/05/2016 to 31/12/2020

Name of the Institute(s) or Company(ies)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology;

3. Is the same GMPt release planned elsewhere in the Community?
Not known

Has the same GMPt been notified elsewhere by the same notifier?

If yes, notification number(s):

Genetically modified plant

Complete name of the recipient or parental plant(s)
Common NameFamily NameGenusSpeciesSubspeciesCultivar/breeding line
CrambeBrassicaceaeCrambeCrambe abyssinicaGalactica

2. Description of the traits and characteristics which have been introduced or modified, including marker genes and previous modifications:
Three transgenic lines will be included in the field trial: XLZeru, XLZwax2, XLZwaxH.
1. Line XLZeru shows a significant increase in the erucic acid content in its seed oil. GC analyses of the seed oil from several generations have shown that the average erucic acid content has been stable in greenhouse and biotron. The average erucic acid content has increased to 72% compared with 60% in the non-transformed control. The field trial in 2012 and 2014 showed the line had a slightly decreased erucic acid level for both the GM line and wild type. We would like to make more field trials for further evaluation of this line.
The line contains also the nptII gene, which has previously been proved not to affect the plant growth and development.

2. Line XLZwax2 contains mainly C22 alcohol and fatty acid or C44 wax ester in its seed oil. GC analyses have shown that the average wax ester content is about 25% from several generation's tests in greenhouse and biotron. The field trial showed about 16% of wax esters in the seed oil in 2012 and 2014, but ca 7% in 2015. More field tirals are needed for further evaluation.
The line contains also the nptII and DsRed genes. DsRed is a reporter gene and has no effect on plant growth and development.

3. Line XLZwaxH produces mainly C22 alcohol and fatty acids or C44 wax esters. The average wax ester content in the seed oil is about 25% in the 3rd generation in greenhouse. We are going to use the seeds from generation 4 for field trial in 2016, but will not choose the individuals that have the wax ester content higher than 30% as they tend to have reduced germination capacity.
The line contains also the nptII as marker gene and DsRed as reporter gene, however, DsRed does not function since the nptII gene was inserted within the DsRed coding sequence.

Genetic modification

3. Type of genetic modification:

In case of insertion of genetic material, give the source and intended function of each constituent fragment of the region to be inserted:
1. BaFAE comes fron Brassica napus in order to increase the carbon chain length, and thereby the erucic acid content.
2. LdLPAAT comes from Limnanthes douglasii in order to add erucic acid into the second position of the triacylglyerol backbone for increasing the erucic acid prodution through trierucin.
3. FAD2-RNAi construct is made using gene fragment of the FAD2 gene from Crambe abyssinica. The FAD2 gene is coding for the enzyme that desaturate oleic acid to linoleic acid. The intron comes fron Flaveria trinerva och Ricinus communis in order to down regulate the FAD2 gene, and thereby increasing the erucic acid content.
4. ScFAR gene comes from Simmondsia chinensis in order to produce C20 and C22 fatty alcohols
5. ScWS gene comes fron Simmondsia chinensis in order to produce wax esters
6. DeRed gene comes fron Discosoma sp. and it is a reporter gene and has no effect on plant growth and development
7. NPTII comes from Escherichia coli in order to select transformants, but it has no effects on plant growth and development

6. Brief description of the method used for the genetic modification:
Agrobaterium-mediated gene transfer was used for the genetic modification.

Experimental Release

1. Purpose of the release:
The main aim of the field trial is to continue to investigate performance of the GM crambe lines under field conditions regarding the oil composition, especially the erucic acid content and wax ester prodution, seed setting and yield. We also intend to observe the tolerance or resistance of the GM lines to bio- and abiotic stresses, such as insect or disease resistance. The Release will also allow us to multiply the seed material from the three lines to be used in future field trials as well as use the seed material for application tests.

2. Geographical location of the site:
During 2016 the release will be at Borgeby, Lomma kommun. In 2017-2020 trials may also be in one or more of the municipalities of Kristianstad or Kävlinge.

3. Size of the site (m2):
The total area of release in one year during 2016-2020 will not exceed 30000 m2.
In 2016 the total area will be about 3000 m2

4. Relevant data regarding previous releases carried out with the same GM-plant, if any, specifically related to the potential environmental and human health impacts from the release:
Genetic modified crambe lines XLZeru and XLZwax2 were released earlier in Sweden. There was no special impact on environment and human health from the release observed.

Environmental Impact and Risk Management

Summary of the potential environmental impact from the release of the GMPts:
The modified or introduced trait in the three GM-crambe lines are only concerning an alteration in the composition of the seed oil and a new oil component. In the XLZeru line, the level of the existing erucic acid has been increased from 60% to 72%. The XLZwax2 and XLZwaxH lines, apart from normal triacylglycerols, contain also wax esters, a new oil component for crambe, which is composed of one alcohol and one fatty acid with the chain lengths of 20-22 carbons. Wax esters are found naturally in high content in the seeds of the desert plant jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) from America and it also exists as a natural component in e.g. the cuticle of plants.

The increased level of 70% in erucic acid in the XLZeru line should not give any selective advantages in a natural envirionment since erucic acid already exists at up to 60% in the seeds of non-GM-crambe and non-GM high erucic acid rapeseed.

The two XLZwax lines contain up to 25% wax esters in the seed oil and we don’t expect this change will lead to selective advantages in a natural environment. Our field trials showed that XLZwax2 had actually reduced germination compared to the wild type.

Brief description of any measures taken for the management of risks:
The trial fields with the GM-crambe lines will be sourrounded by a 10 meters wide border of a barrier crop (barley or wild type crambe) that is big enough for mashineries to turn around and to clean out the harvesting equipment.
After harvesting the seeds from the GM-crambe lines, the trial field will be burned to destroy any remaining crop (including barrier crop). Additional straw will be added onto the field to facilitate the burning.
Measures are made so to limit the buildup of a seed bank by a light harrow after the harvest and the burning of the field that will stimulate GM-crambe seeds dropped to the ground to germinate. The year after the field will lay in fallow and during this time it will be harrowed interveningly over the year to facilitate seeds to grow and seedlings to be controlled.
It can be added that growing crambe plants can not survive a normal winter in the South of Sweden.
Beside the dates for recording the crops development, the crambe field will be monitored at least twice a month.

Final report

European Commission administrative information

Consent given by the Member State Competent Authority:
05/05/2016 00:00:00