Member State to which the notification was sent
Date of acknowledgement from the Member State Competent Authority
Title of the Project
Potato with altered resistance to pathogens
Proposed period of release:
01/05/2014 to 31/12/2019
Name of the Institute(s) or Company(ies)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences SLU, Department of Plant Protection Biology, P. O Box 102, 230 53, Alnarp.;
3. Is the same GMPt release planned elsewhere in the Community?
Has the same GMPt been notified elsewhere by the same notifier?
Genetically modified plant
Complete name of the recipient or parental plant(s)
Desiree, King Edward, Mandelpotatis
2. Description of the traits and characteristics which have been introduced or modified, including marker genes and previous modifications:
The trial comprises four different transgenic plants with: a) an overexpressed PAMP gene coding for a 14 amino acid peptide that is involved in the PTI (PEP13a), neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) encoding kanamycin resistance as marker. b) an over-expressed CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene (R2SW) involved in the ETI, hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) coding for hygromycin resistance as a marker. c) overexpressed salicylic acid hydroxylase (NahG) where the plants are unable to accumulate SA, neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) coding for kanamycin resistance as a marker. d) down-regulated F-box protein gene Coi1 where jasmonic acid perception in plants is downregulated, with neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) coding for kanamycin resistance as a marker.
3. Type of genetic modification:
In case of insertion of genetic material, give the source and intended function of each constituent fragment of the region to be inserted:
The application includes four different transformed plants:
pR2SW - left border sequence (LB), nopaline synthase polyadenylation sequence (nosT) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, neomycin phosphotransferase II coding sequence (nptII) from Escherichia coli (marker), nopaline synthase promoter (Pnos) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens , the 35S promoter (P35S) from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), PCR amplified R2SW gene from Solanum tuberosum, polyadenylation sequence from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S transcript (T35S), right border (RB) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
pPEP13a - right border (RB) originating Agrobacterium tumefaciens, G10 -90 promoter (Gbox10 tetramer/CaMV -90 35S promoter, Ishige et al 1999), gene for XVE fusion protein consisting of a LexA DNA binding domain fused to the VP16 transactivation domain fused to partial human estrogen receptor (binds to the LexA promoter), glucocorticoid receptor 3 'untranslated UTR from rat, pea rbcS polyadenylation signal, nopaline synthase promoter (Pnos from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) from Escherichia coli (marker), nopaline synthase polyadenylation sequence (nosT) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, LexA promoter from Escherichia coli, partial 35S promoter (P35S) from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), synthesized PEP13a gene, pea 3A polyadenylation sequence and left border sequence (LB) originating Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
pNahG - left border sequence (LB) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 35S promoter (P35S) from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), NahG encoding gene from Pseudomonas putida, Tumor Morphology Large (tml) 3 ' polyadenylation sequence from cauliflower mosaic virus, nopaline synthase (nosT) polyadenylation sequence from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, neomycin phosphotransferase II coding sequence (nptII) from Escherichia coli, nopaline synthase promoter (Pnos) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and right border (RB) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
pCoi1 - right border (RB) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 35S promoter (P35S) from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), duplicated and inverted fragment of the gene for COI1 where COI1 originates from Solanum tuberosum, between the duplication is an intron from pyruvate orthofosfat dikinas (PDK), inside the intron a chloramphenicol resistance marker gene (CAM) which is similar to a gene originating from E. coli, octopine synthase (ocsT) polyadenylation sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, nopaline synthase promoter (Pnos) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, neomycin phosphotransferase II coding sequence (nptII) from Escherichia coli, nopaline synthase (nosT) polyadenylation sequence from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and left border sequence (LB) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
6. Brief description of the method used for the genetic modification:
Individual genes have been over-expressed and down-regulated. For downregulation RNA interference (RNAi), a naturally occurring system of regulation of genes in cells, was used. For transformation of potato a binary vector system where genes to be transferred can be found inside the border sequences that form a transfer DNA (T-DNA) was used. The DNA mobilization features are available in a modified Ti plasmid that is not transferred to the plant. For transformation of T-DNA to the potato, Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the vector has been used. Cut potato leaf tissue was transformed and transgenic shoots were selected on antibiotics. After transformation, the Agrobacterium killed with 400 mg/ml Cefotaxime
7. If the recipient or parental plant is a forest tree species, describe ways and extent of dissemination and specific factors affecting dissemination:
1. Purpose of the release:
The purpose of the experiment is to give the potato resistance to late blight and understand how the plants resistance mechanisms function. A resistance gene from an old crossing material has been transferred in order to increase the resistance. By studying potato clones that are altered in response or accumulation of stress hormones (salicylic acid and jasmonate), we want to understand the significance of these hormone signaling pathways in resistance. We want to, under field conditions, study the stability of the modified feature, identify any morphological abnormalities, produce field-grown material for laboratory testing, assess agricultural value including resistance properties and produce material for next year's field trials. The experiment is only for research purposes.
2. Geographical location of the site:
Municipalities of Kristianstad, Lomma and Kävlinge
3. Size of the site (m2):
4. Relevant data regarding previous releases carried out with the same GM-plant, if any, specifically related to the potential environmental and human health impacts from the release:
Environmental Impact and Risk Management
Summary of the potential environmental impact from the release of the GMPts:
Potatoes can be propagated via tubers and via seeds. Potato tubers are frost sensitive and is therefore dependent on temperature to overwinter in the field. Overwintering of tubers can occur in southern Sweden after a mild winter. Seeds can survive independent of temperature. Very rarely occur waste plants of potatoes in the cultivated landscape since seeds and any tubers are destroyed at the next year's tillage, use of herbicides and competition of the subsequent crop. Potato occurs only in the agricultural landscape. There is no information about potato plants spreading in the wild. Potatoes also have no compatible relatives in Europe and therefore can only cross with other farmed potatoes. The genetic material can be transferred via pollen and crossing to other potatoes in farming areas. The reported dispersion distance for potato pollen is very short and the proposed distance of 20 m to other cultivated potato exceeds spreading distance and is therefore considered sufficient to prevent accidental crossing. The modified potatoes are predicted not to have any new toxic or allergenic substances. Resistance to P. infestans could in theory provide an advantage against non-resistant potato varieties since this disease is very common. If crossing or other type of distribution would occur, the altered resistance can be transferred, but there is no evidence that the potato blight - tolerant potato varieties grown today are more invasive or competitive outside of the cultivated landscape. Increased resistance is assumed not give any change in the viability of the modified potatoes. Altered pathogen resistance is not considered to give an increased risk for health and environment. Cultivation of resistant instead of sensitive potato varieties could reduce the use of fungicides significantly.
Brief description of any measures taken for the management of risks:
In order to minimize the spread of pollen to other farmed potatoes (according to the literature is the distance of the spread of potato pollen maximum of ten meters; OECD, 1997), a safety distance of 20 m will be held. All flower buds from the genetically modified plants will be removed, or alternatively a distance to registered positions for hives of about 3 km will be held. Cleaning of machinery, tools, and transportation vehicles will be done after contact with the modified lines. In order to control any post-harvest surviving tubers, the site lie fallow for one year and no potatoes will be grown in the field following 2 years. Potential waste plants will be documented and eliminated either mechanically or with herbicides. Plant residues from field cultivation and harvest will be destroyed either by vaporization, autoclaving or freezing and composted or incinerated. Transport of harvested potatoes will be done by car or truck in sealed double bags. Transportation will not be done in conjunction with other potatoes. Harvested potatoes will be stored in SLU's premises (SJV dnr 22-9290/07). Analyses of the material will be in SLU's premises and leftover crop residues will be destroyed by autoclaving or incineration (SJV dnr 22-9290/07).
Summary of foreseen field trial studies focused to gain new data on environmental and human health impact from the release:
European Commission administrative information
Consent given by the Member State Competent Authority: