Member State to which the notification was sent
Date of acknowledgement from the Member State Competent Authority
Title of the Project
Environmental use of safe virus-free plums
Proposed period of release:
01/11/2007 to 01/11/2013
Name of the Institute(s) or Company(ies)
Fruit Research and Development Station Bistrita, Drumul Dumitrei Nou Sreeet, no. 3,
3. Is the same GMPt release planned elsewhere in the Community?
Has the same GMPt been notified elsewhere by the same notifier?
If yes, notification number(s):
ref DOPgmo 4301/02-4/2002
Genetically modified plant
Complete name of the recipient or parental plant(s)
hybrid Stanley C5 (Honey Sweet)
2. Description of the traits and characteristics which have been introduced or modified, including marker genes and previous modifications:
-the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP);
-the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII) and
-the beta-glucuronidase gene (gus);
The insert contain also a promoter (35S) and a terminator (NOS).
The trangenes are inserted in three copies in the plant genom.
3. Type of genetic modification:
In case of insertion of genetic material, give the source and intended function of each constituent fragment of the region to be inserted:
The components of the inserted foreign DNA and their functions are as following:
a) coat protein (CP) gene from PPV genome, D strain, codifies for the Plum pox virus coat protein. It was engineered for targeting the pathogen derived resistance approach.
b) npt II gene from Escherichia coli confers resistance to kanamycin. It was included as a selection marker in the transformation process.
c) beta-glucuronidase gene from Escherichia coli - is a chromogenic marker.
d) 35S promoter from Cauliflower mosaic virus - is a gene regulation.
e) NOS terminator from nopaline synthase gene, isolated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is a gene regulation.
6. Brief description of the method used for the genetic modification:
Plum hypocotyl slices were transformed with the coat protein (CP) gene of Plum pox virus (PPV-CP) following cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the plasmid pGA482GG/PPV-CP-33. This binary vector carries the PPV-CP gene construct, as well as the chimeric neomycin phosphotransferase and beta-glucuronidase genes.
7. If the recipient or parental plant is a forest tree species, describe ways and extent of dissemination and specific factors affecting dissemination:
1. Purpose of the release:
The main objective of field trial of C5 genetically modified plum resistant to Sharka is to gain further information relating to the agronomical and phenotype performance and compatibility of this event under PPV endemic area and geo-climatic conditions of Romania. The study will be performed in the context of Plum pox virus-free plum crops and decreasing the environmental pollution caused by the abuse of pesticides used for aphids control.
2. Geographical location of the site:
Experimental plot at Fruit Research and Development Station Bistrita (Statiunea de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Pomicultura Bistrita), Bistrita-Nasaud county, Bistrita Hilly, Romania.
3. Size of the site (m2):
The size of the site plot proposed is 1400 m2
4. Relevant data regarding previous releases carried out with the same GM-plant, if any, specifically related to the potential environmental and human health impacts from the release:
Transgenic plum trees containing the PPV CP gene were tested in experimental orchards under conditions of high PPV inoculum pressure in Spain (notification numbers B/ES/96/16, B/ES/05/14), Poland (ref DOPgmo 4301/02-4/2002), and Romania (import authorization by Ministry of Agriculture no. 1166/ 02/ 1996). Transgenic C5 plum trees were highly resistant to graft-inoculation with PPV and no tree became infected via aphid-mediated transmission of PPV over a 10-year field trials (Malinowski et al., 2006, Zagrai et al., 2006). These data revelead the durability of resistance to PPV of C5 plum trees.
Because the transgenic plums carry the PPV CP gene, the environmental safety issues have been expressed on potential hazards concerning the emergence of PPV variants. The potential impact of transgenic plums expressing PPV CP gene construct on the diversity and dynamics of PPV populations was assessed under open and confined conditions in the frame of a research program sponsored by the European Commission (TRANSVIR QLK3-CT-2002-02140). Across field trials conducted in different locations (Romania and Spain) and environments (continental and Mediterranean), transgenic plums expressing the PPV CP gene had no detectable effect on the emergence of recombinant PPV species over ten years. Also, these transgenic plums had a neutral impact on non-target organisms over extended time (Capote et al., 2006, Zagrai et al., 2006).
Another field trial with C5 transgenic plum is in progress in Czech Republic (notification number B/CZ/06/03).
Environmental Impact and Risk Management
Summary of the potential environmental impact from the release of the GMPts:
The release of GM-European plums carrying the coat protein gene of PPV is considered not to have any adverse effect on human, animals or plants. There is no possibility of an increase of the transgenic trees population nor the GM-trees have selective advantage compared to conventional ones, since they became resistant to PPV. The transgenic plum trees was exhaustively studied along 10 years period and it has been demonstrated that the release of this GMO did not suppose an environmental risk. In addition, there is a history of another GMO carrying a similar insert (transgenic papaya exhibiting „pathogen-derived resistance”) that attest the safe consumption and no adverse effect on environment.
An Environmental Risk Assessment study has been completed and submitted with this application. In summary, no immediate or delayed adverse effects as a result of the direct and indirect interaction of the genetically modified plum with the environment have been identified.
Brief description of any measures taken for the management of risks:
•The experimental plot will be surrounded by non-transgenic border trees, apple, pear and cherry (which are sexually incompatible with plums) to minimize pollen dispersal;
•Planting and harvesting will be conducted by SCDP Bistrita personnel trained on precaution measures;
•Carrying out regular visits to inspect field trail site, making observations, samples collecting and verifying that adequate measures are applied for preventing pests and diseases;
•No fruit products resulting from the field trail will be used as food or feed;
•Potential plum seedlings will be monitored and removed.
•All GMP debris will be removed from the test area and destroy. At the end of the experiment, the plants will be herbicide-killed and then the trees eliminated by bulldozing into large piles and burning.
Summary of foreseen field trial studies focused to gain new data on environmental and human health impact from the release:
Although this trial has not been designed to specifically gain new data on the environment and human health impact of the release, our studies will be extended on health potential impact by identifying of residues regardless their source GM or non GM.
European Commission administrative information
Consent given by the Member State Competent Authority: