General informationNotification NumberB/PL/11/02-10Member State to which the notification was sentPolandDate of acknowledgement from the Member State Competent Authority25/07/2011Title of the ProjectInvestigation of genetically modified triticaleProposed period of release:01/10/2011 to 31/12/2013Name of the Institute(s) or Company(ies)Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, National Research Institute, Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, National Research Institute, Radzikó;
3. Is the same GMPt release planned elsewhere in the Community?NoHas the same GMPt been notified elsewhere by the same notifier?YesIf yes, notification number(s): B/PL/07/02-02; Genetically modified plantComplete name of the recipient or parental plant(s)
2. Description of the traits and characteristics which have been introduced or modified, including marker genes and previous modifications:Tissue material was bombarded with pDB1 plasmid (Becker et al 1994), containing the ß - glucuronidase gene (uidA) under the control of actin-1 promoter (Act1) from rice and a selectable marker gene bar (phosphinothricin acetyl transferase) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Bar gene is responsible for herbicide BASTA resistance.
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Becker D., Brettschneider R., Lorz H., 1994 - Fertile transgenic wheat from microprojectile bombardment of scutellar tissue. Plant Journal 5, 583-592.Genetic modification3. Type of genetic modification:Insertion; In case of insertion of genetic material, give the source and intended function of each constituent fragment of the region to be inserted:The construct pDB1 (Becker et al. 1994) was used for transformation. It contains the uidA gene under the control of the rice actin-1D promoter (McElroy et al., 1990) and the bar (Phosphinothricin tolerance) gene under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter.
Phosphinothricin tolerance has been conferred to a variety of plant species by using recombinant DNA techniques to transfer genes from bacteria to enable the plant to produce an enzyme (phosphinothricin acetyl transferase; PAT).
The gene is derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus. PAT catalyses the acetylation of the L-phosphinothricin into the non herbicidally active N-acetyl-glufosinate. PAT is a highly specific enzyme, with very low affinity for substrates other than glufosinate.
Transgenic line expresses a reporter gene (uidA) encoding the enzyme beta-D-glucuronidase (GUS) from E. coli. The expression of GUS activity was used during the development phase to identify transgenic plants containing the introduced gene sequences.
Becker D., Brettschneider R., Lorz H., 1994 - Fertile transgenic wheat from microprojectile bombardment of scutellar tissue. Plant Journal 5, 583-5926. Brief description of the method used for the genetic modification:Particle gun method was used for transformation. For bombardment, plasmid DNA was precipitated onto gold particles of an average size between 0.4 and 1.2 µm. The precipitation mixture contained 2 mg gold particles, 5 µl of plasmid DNA (µg/µl), 20 µl spermidine-free base (0.1M) and 50 µl CaCl2 (2.5M). The particles were prepared according to Becker et al. (1994). For each shot 3.5 µl of the suspension was spread onto the surface of the macrocarrier. In the experiments a PDS 1000/He particle gun (BioRad) was used.Experimental Release1. Purpose of the release:The scientific assessment of possible environmental impact of the GMOs and, especially potential for gene transfer by pollen flow. The main goal is to establish the
potential consequence arising from out-crossing to other plant cultivars and related species that should be considered and assessed for environmental risk. This will depend on non-GM sexually compatible plants being present in regions where the GM crops are being grown and which are available to receive pollen and produce fertile hybrids.2. Geographical location of the site:Fields of Experimental Stations of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, Radzików and Młochów, mazowieckie voivodship, Poland3. Size of the site (m2):2 fields x 400 m2 x 2 localisations4. Relevant data regarding previous releases carried out with the same GM-plant, if any, specifically related to the potential environmental and human health impacts from the release:Yes, over last two years we conducted research on crosspolination of GM triticale. As a result of these studies we found that the level of transgenic triticale crosspolination higher than 0.9% was observed in the distance no greater than 1.5 m. Trace levels of crosspolination (0,066 - 0,033%) were observed in cases of surrounding sow at a distance no greater than 10 m. from the plot of transgenic plants. No other influences on the surrounding environment were observed.Environmental Impact and Risk ManagementSummary of the potential environmental impact from the release of the GMPts:We do not expect any environmental impact on plants in natural environment. Triticale itself is an artificial species created by breeders and does not influence the environment.
Triticale is primarily self-pollinating, although gene introgression into other cultivated triticale is possible. Reported outcrossing rates are about one/one and half percent and are limited by the biological characteristics of triticale. Factors including flower morphology, inability of pollen to remain viable longer than a few minutes, and a lack of insect vectors for pollen spread contribute to the low propensity of triticale to cross-pollinate.
It was determined for other species (rice, soybean, canola) that the presence of glufosinate tolerance in hybrid populations would not change the fitness characteristics nor increase weediness (e.g., emergence vigor, final height, disease resistance, fecundity, shattering, and dormancy), except for a possible tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium. However, should this occur, current weed control practices, such as tillage or other registered herbicides, would be an effective means of controlling the hybrid plants.Brief description of any measures taken for the management of risks:Experiments will be established on the fields where other crops are grown. E.g. within rapeseed or sugar beet fields. It will ensure the buffer zone from other cereals that could be pollinated by triticale. Experimental fields will be permanently monitored during the time of experiments. Over next two years other than triticale plants will be grown on these fields. In spring experimental fields will be sprayed with herbicide other than BASTA. Later fields will be still monitored and possible growing triticale plants will be removed and destroyed.Summary of foreseen field trial studies focused to gain new data on environmental and human health impact from the release:Transgenic triticale does not show any selection advantages over non transgenic one. This concerns other plant species existing in environment as well. We do not expect any influence of GM triticale on non target organisms like hosts, symbionts, parasites and pathogens.Final report-European Commission administrative informationConsent given by the Member State Competent Authority:Not known